Clinical manifestations of PCOS and associated risks

Clinical manifestations of PCOS and associated risks.
These include:
🔹 Menstrual dysfunction
<8 menstrual cycles per year
🔹Risk of endometrial cancer
“Since ovulation is rare or absent in PCOS, ovulation occurs (hyperplasia) of the endometrium, which can lead to bleeding” and also serves as a background for the development of endometrial cancer.
▫️ In women with PCOS, endometrial thickness> 7 mm may indicate hyperplasia☝🏻
🔹 Anovulatory infertility.
Women with PCOS ovulate infrequently, so it takes longer to conceive ⏳
🔹Hirsutism (male pattern excess body hair growth)

🔹Oesity and insulin resistance
📌 Obesity occurs in 50% of women with PCOS, in 30% – visceral obesity.
📌Most women with PCOS and are also insulin resistant, regardless of obesity, compared to women who do not.
📌Insulin resistance has been recognized as a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
📌 Factors such as obesity and a family history of type 2 diabetes can increase the risk of diabetes in PCOS.

🔹Cardiovascular disease
With PCOS, the risks of developing atherosclerosis increase, and as a result of this, stroke, heart attack.
🔹 Complications during pregnancy 🤰
▫️ Women with PCOS have a higher risk of developing gestational complications such as miscarriage, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), hypertension, and preeclampsia ☝🏻

▫️These conditions put them at a higher risk of preterm birth and caesarean section.

🔹 Apnea in sleep.

Apnea (short-term respiratory arrest) during sleep – common in women with PCOS

▫️The main symptoms are loud snoring, fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness.

🔹Mood disorders.

▫️Mood disorders are, in principle, common among the population.

▫️ Women with PCOS may be more prone to mood disorders (depression and anxiety) compared to women without PCOS.

🔹Eating disorders.

Women with PCOS are also at risk for eating disorders such as overeating and bulimia nervosa.

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